Longitudinal data analysis

A recipe for accurate estimation of lifespan brain trajectories, distinguishing longitudinal and cohort effects

We address the problem of estimating how different parts of the brain develop and change throughout the lifespan, and how these trajectories are affected by genetic and environmental factors. Estimation of these lifespan trajectories is statistically challenging, since their shapes are typically highly nonlinear, and although true change can only be quantified by longitudinal examinations, as follow-up intervals in neuroimaging studies typically cover less than 10% of the lifespan, use of cross-sectional information is necessary.